Semantic analysis machine learning Wikipedia

Sakata, “Cross-domain academic paper recommendation by semantic linkage approach using text analysis and recurrent neural networks,” The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. Dandelion API extracts entities , categorizes and classifies documents in user-defined categories, augments the text with tags and links to external knowledge graphs and more. It recognizes text chunks and turns them into machine-processable and understandable data pieces by linking them to the broader context of already existing data. 1 A simple search for “systematic review” on the Scopus database in June 2016 returned, by subject area, 130,546 Health Sciences documents and only 5,539 Physical Sciences . The coverage of Scopus publications are balanced between Health Sciences (32% of total Scopus publication) and Physical Sciences (29% of total Scopus publication).

  • They are putting their best efforts forward to embrace the method from a broader perspective and will continue to do so in the years to come.
  • We adjusted our network analysis process significantly throughout the project, so Celardo et al.’s work on improving analysis accuracy related to our struggles with creating realistic keyword clusters from our network.
  • Thus, this paper reports a systematic mapping study to overview the development of semantics-concerned studies and fill a literature review gap in this broad research field through a well-defined review process.
  • We theorized that these types of one word judgements weren’t long enough to be properly assessed in terms of trigrams, so were not necessarily linked to others with similar sentiments.
  • Besides the vector space model, there are text representations based on networks , which can make use of some text semantic features.
  • The field lacks secondary studies in areas that has a high number of primary studies, such as feature enrichment for a better text representation in the vector space model.

This posed a serious issue in creating the network, since we didn’t want to pick an arbitrary cutoff, but we also couldn’t use our version of Foxworthy’s implementation. We eventually scatter-plotted the hamming distances from the kernel matrix, and selected cutoffs based on the distribution. Running some examples, we thought it was more intuitive to change our hamming distance function to track hamming similarity, and count the number of indices that vectors were similar.

What Is Semantic Analysis? Definition, Examples, and Applications in 2022

First, Foxworthy preprocessed his dataset to remove white-space and punctuation. Then, he used k-grams to create a feature space of all possible k-grams in the alphabet. He then “vectorized” each text in the data set by creating vectors of zeros the size of the feature space that correspond to each text, and marking a 1 at each vector index where the string contained the k-gram corresponding to that index. The hamming distances were stored in a kernel matrix, where each row or column represented a text in the data set, and their corresponding index was the similarity between the texts. Foxworthy found a ”cutoff” value through taking the eigenvector of the kernel matrix, and created his network by marking an edge in an adjacency matrix for each pair of texts whose hamming similarity value was above the cutoff.

Dagan et al. introduce a special issue of the Journal of Natural Language Engineering on textual entailment recognition, which is a natural language task that aims to identify if a piece of text can be inferred from another. The authors present an overview of relevant aspects in textual entailment, discussing four PASCAL Recognising Textual Entailment Challenges. They declared that the systems submitted to those challenges use cross-pair similarity measures, machine learning, and logical inference.

Overview and Analysis of Existing Decisions of Determining the Meaning of Text Documents

So, they were able to effectively categorize text without starting with an ontology of the data taxonomy categories. It was surprising to find the high presence of the Chinese language among the studies. Chinese language is the second most cited language, and the HowNet, a Chinese-English knowledge database, is the third most applied external source in semantics-concerned text mining studies. Looking at the languages addressed in the studies, we found that there is a lack of studies specific to languages other than English or Chinese. We also found an expressive use of WordNet as an external knowledge source, followed by Wikipedia, HowNet, Web pages, SentiWordNet, and other knowledge sources related to Medicine.

What are examples of semantic categories?

A semantic class contains words that share a semantic feature. For example within nouns there are two sub classes, concrete nouns and abstract nouns. The concrete nouns include people, plants, animals, materials and objects while the abstract nouns refer to concepts such as qualities, actions, and processes.

We can any of the below two semantic analysis techniques depending on the type of information you would like to obtain from the given data. As we discussed, the most important task of semantic analysis is to find the proper meaning of the sentence. This article is part of an ongoing blog series on Natural Language Processing . I hope after reading that article you can understand the power of NLP in Artificial Intelligence.

Named Entity Extraction

This is a good survey focused on a linguistic point of view, rather than focusing only on statistics. The authors discuss a series of questions concerning natural language issues that should be considered when applying the text mining process. Most of the questions are related to text pre-processing and the authors present the impacts of performing or not some pre-processing activities, such as stopwords removal, stemming, word sense disambiguation, and tagging.

This research shows that huge volumes of data can be reduced if the underlying sensor signal has adequate spectral properties to be filtered and good results can be obtained when employing a filtered sensor signal in applications. With the help of meaning representation, unambiguous, canonical forms can be represented at the lexical level. The very first reason is that with the help of meaning representation the linking of linguistic elements to the non-linguistic elements can be done. Mirza, “Document level semantic comprehension of noisy text streams via convolutional neural networks,” The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc, pp. 475–479, 2017. All mentions of people, things, etc. and the relationships between them that have been recognized and enriched with machine-readable data are then indexed and stored in a semantic graph database for further reference and use. Turn strings to things with Ontotext’s free application for automating the conversion of messy string data into a knowledge graph.

Understanding How a Semantic Text Analysis Engine Works

Besides, semantic text analysisNet can support the computation of semantic similarity and the evaluation of the discovered knowledge . Bos presents an extensive survey of computational semantics, a research area focused on computationally understanding human language in written or spoken form. He discusses how to represent semantics in order to capture the meaning of human language, how to construct these representations from natural language expressions, and how to draw inferences from the semantic representations. The author also discusses the generation of background knowledge, which can support reasoning tasks.


Another technique in this direction that is commonly used for topic modeling is latent Dirichlet allocation . The topic model obtained by LDA has been used for representing text collections as in . The application of text mining methods in information extraction of biomedical literature is reviewed by Winnenburg et al. . The paper describes the state-of-the-art text mining approaches for supporting manual text annotation, such as ontology learning, named entity and concept identification. They also describe and compare biomedical search engines, in the context of information retrieval, literature retrieval, result processing, knowledge retrieval, semantic processing, and integration of external tools.


However, there is a lack of secondary studies that consolidate these researches. This paper reported a systematic mapping study conducted to overview semantics-concerned text mining literature. Thus, due to limitations of time and resources, the mapping was mainly performed based on abstracts of papers. Nevertheless, we believe that our limitations do not have a crucial impact on the results, since our study has a broad coverage. Consequently, in order to improve text mining results, many text mining researches claim that their solutions treat or consider text semantics in some way.


Semantic analysis machine learning Wikipedia

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